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Madagascar Geography: from the All Country Info reference guide to country facts

Madagascar Geography

Madagascar Geography: A summary of information about Madagascar Geography, from government research data as well as independent research and other sources.

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Madagascar: Geography

Location
Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Mozambique
Geographic coordinates
20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references
Africa
Area
total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries
0 km
Coastline
4,828 km
Maritime claims
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz,
tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 14% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land
10,870 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards
periodic cyclones
Environment - current issues
soil erosion results from deforestation
and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw
sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna
unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel
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