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Iran Government: from the All Country Info reference guide to country facts

Iran Government

Iran Government: A summary of information about Iran Government, from government research data as well as independent research and other sources.

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Iran: Government

Country name
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran
Data code
IR
Government type
theocratic republic
Capital
Tehran
Administrative divisions
28 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan);
Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar
Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan,
Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshahan, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh
va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qom,
Qazvin, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
National holiday
Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Constitution
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the
presidency and eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system
the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government
Suffrage
15 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali
Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3
August 1997); First Vice President Hasan Ebrahim HABIBI (since NA
August 1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with
legislative approval
elections: leader of the Islamic Revolution appointed for life by the
Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year
term; election last held 23 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani elected president;
percent of vote - (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani 69%
Legislative branch
unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or
Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (290 seats, note - changed from 270 seats
with the 18 February 2000 election; members elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 February-NA April 2000 (next to be held NA
2004)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA; note - reformers
received 70% of the vote (170 seats), the conservatives received 30%
(45 seats), and independents (10 seats); 65 seats were up for runoff
election in April 2000
Judicial branch
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders
since President KHATAMI's election in
May 1997, several political parties have been licensed; Executives of
Construction; Followers of the Imam's Line and the Leader
(conservative); Islamic Coalition Association [Habibollah
ASQAR-OLADI]; Islamic Iran Solidarity Party; Islamic Partnership
Front; Militant Clerics Association ; Second
Khordad Front (pro-reform); Tehran Militant Clergy Association
Political pressure groups and leaders: active student groups include
the pro-reform "Organization for Strengthening Unity" and "the Union
of Islamic Student Societies'; groups that generally support the
Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the Islamic
Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, and the
Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the
Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed
political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the
government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's
Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom
International organization participation
CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US
none; note - Iran has an
Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy, headed by Faramarz
FATH-NEJAD; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy,
2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone:  (202)
965-4990
Diplomatic representation from the US
none; note - protecting power
in Iran is Switzerland
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word
Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is
Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom
edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band
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