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India Geography

India Geography: A summary of information about India Geography, from government research data as well as independent research and other sources.

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India: Geography

Location
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map references
Asia
Area
total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km,
China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline
7,000 km
Maritime claims
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain
along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resources
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron
ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use
arable land: 56%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 16% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land
480,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards
droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
earthquakes
Environment - current issues
deforestation; soil erosion;
overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents
and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of
agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the
country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural
resources
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes
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