Germany Geography: from the All Country Info reference guide to country facts

Germany Geography

Germany Geography: A summary of information about Germany Geography, from government research data as well as independent research and other sources.

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Germany: Geography

Location
Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates
51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references
Europe
Area
total: 357,021 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries
total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline
2,389 km
Maritime claims
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm foehn wind
Terrain
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium,
copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Land use
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 20% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land
4,750 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards
flooding
Environment - current issues
emissions from coal-burning utilities
and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from
sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic
Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern
Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to
define mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power; government
working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in
line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note
strategic location on North European Plain and along
the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Locations:
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