Brazil Geography: from the All Country Info reference guide to country facts

Brazil Geography

Brazil Geography: A summary of information about Brazil Geography, from government research data as well as independent research and other sources.

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Brazil: Geography

Location
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map references
South America
Area
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline
7,491 km
Maritime claims
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Natural resources
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land use
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other: 14% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land
28,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south
Environment - current issues
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an
environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution
and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail
sentences
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note
largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Locations:
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